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Version: 1.0

cw-storage-plus

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Enhanced Storage Engines for CosmWasm

Notice

This has been heavily used in many production-quality contracts and heavily refined. There is one planned API break, but the code has demonstrated itself to be stable and powerful. Please feel free to use in your contracts.

Usage Overview

We introduce two main classes to provide a productive abstraction on top of cosmwasm_std::Storage. They are Item, which is a typed wrapper around one database key, providing some helper functions for interacting with it without dealing with raw bytes. And Map, which allows you to store multiple unique typed objects under a prefix, indexed by a simple (&[u8]) or compound (eg. (&[u8], &[u8])) primary key.

These correspond to the concepts represented in cosmwasm_storage by Singleton and Bucket, but with a re-designed API and implementation to require less typing for developers and less gas usage in the contracts.

Item

The usage of an Item is pretty straight-forward. You must simply provide the proper type, as well as a database key not used by any other item. Then it will provide you with a nice interface to interact with such data.

If you are coming from using Singleton, the biggest change is that we no longer store Storage inside, meaning we don't need read and write variants of the object, just one type. Furthermore, we use const fn to create the Item, allowing it to be defined as a global compile-time constant rather than a function that must be constructed each time, which saves gas as well as typing.

Example Usage:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug)]
struct Config {
pub owner: String,
pub max_tokens: i32,
}

// note const constructor rather than 2 functions with Singleton
const CONFIG: Item<Config> = Item::new("config");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
let mut store = MockStorage::new();

// may_load returns Option<T>, so None if data is missing
// load returns T and Err(StdError::NotFound{}) if data is missing
let empty = CONFIG.may_load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);
let cfg = Config {
owner: "admin".to_string(),
max_tokens: 1234,
};
CONFIG.save(&mut store, &cfg)?;
let loaded = CONFIG.load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(cfg, loaded);

// update an item with a closure (includes read and write)
// returns the newly saved value
let output = CONFIG.update(&mut store, |mut c| -> StdResult<_> {
c.max_tokens *= 2;
Ok(c)
})?;
assert_eq!(2468, output.max_tokens);

// you can error in an update and nothing is saved
let failed = CONFIG.update(&mut store, |_| -> StdResult<_> {
Err(StdError::generic_err("failure mode"))
});
assert!(failed.is_err());

// loading data will show the first update was saved
let loaded = CONFIG.load(&store)?;
let expected = Config {
owner: "admin".to_string(),
max_tokens: 2468,
};
assert_eq!(expected, loaded);

// we can remove data as well
CONFIG.remove(&mut store);
let empty = CONFIG.may_load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);

Ok(())
}

Map

The usage of an Map is a little more complex, but is still pretty straight-forward. You can imagine it as a storage-backed BTreeMap, allowing key-value lookups with typed values. In addition, we support not only simple binary keys (&[u8]), but tuples, which are combined. This allows us to store allowances as composite keys eg. (owner, spender) to look up the balance.

Beyond direct lookups, we have a super power not found in Ethereum - iteration. That's right, you can list all items in a Map, or only part of them. We can efficiently allow pagination over these items as well, starting at the point the last query ended, with low gas costs. This requires the iterator feature to be enabled in cw-storage-plus (which automatically enables it in cosmwasm-std as well, and which is enabled by default).

If you are coming from using Bucket, the biggest change is that we no longer store Storage inside, meaning we don't need read and write variants of the object, just one type. Furthermore, we use const fn to create the Bucket, allowing it to be defined as a global compile-time constant rather than a function that must be constructed each time, which saves gas as well as typing. In addition, the composite indexes (tuples) is more ergonomic and expressive of intention, and the range interface has been improved.

Here is an example with normal (simple) keys:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
pub name: String,
pub age: i32,
}

const PEOPLE: Map<&str, Data> = Map::new("people");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
let mut store = MockStorage::new();
let data = Data {
name: "John".to_string(),
age: 32,
};

// load and save with extra key argument
let empty = PEOPLE.may_load(&store, "john")?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);
PEOPLE.save(&mut store, "john", &data)?;
let loaded = PEOPLE.load(&store, "john")?;
assert_eq!(data, loaded);

// nothing on another key
let missing = PEOPLE.may_load(&store, "jack")?;
assert_eq!(None, missing);

// update function for new or existing keys
let birthday = |d: Option<Data>| -> StdResult<Data> {
match d {
Some(one) => Ok(Data {
name: one.name,
age: one.age + 1,
}),
None => Ok(Data {
name: "Newborn".to_string(),
age: 0,
}),
}
};

let old_john = PEOPLE.update(&mut store, "john", birthday)?;
assert_eq!(33, old_john.age);
assert_eq!("John", old_john.name.as_str());

let new_jack = PEOPLE.update(&mut store, "jack", birthday)?;
assert_eq!(0, new_jack.age);
assert_eq!("Newborn", new_jack.name.as_str());

// update also changes the store
assert_eq!(old_john, PEOPLE.load(&store, "john")?);
assert_eq!(new_jack, PEOPLE.load(&store, "jack")?);

// removing leaves us empty
PEOPLE.remove(&mut store, "john");
let empty = PEOPLE.may_load(&store, "john")?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);

Ok(())
}

Key types

A Map key can be anything that implements the PrimaryKey trait. There are a series of implementations of PrimaryKey already provided (see packages/storage-plus/src/keys.rs):

  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for &'a [u8]
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for &'a str
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for Vec<u8>
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for String
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for Addr
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for &'a Addr
  • impl<'a, T: PrimaryKey<'a> + Prefixer<'a>, U: PrimaryKey<'a>> PrimaryKey<'a> for (T, U)
  • impl<'a, T: PrimaryKey<'a> + Prefixer<'a>, U: PrimaryKey<'a> + Prefixer<'a>, V: PrimaryKey<'a>> PrimaryKey<'a> for (T, U, V)
  • impl<'a, T: Endian + Clone> PrimaryKey<'a> for IntKey<T>

That means that byte and string slices, byte vectors, and strings, can be conveniently used as keys. Moreover, some other types can be used as well, like addresses and address references, pairs and triples, and integer types.

If the key represents an address, we suggest using &Addr for keys in storage, instead of String or string slices. This implies doing address validation through addr_validate on any address passed in via a message, to ensure it's a legitimate address, and not random text which will fail later. pub fn addr_validate(&self, &str) -> Addr in deps.api can be used for address validation, and the returned Addr can then be conveniently used as key in a Map or similar structure.

Composite Keys

There are times when we want to use multiple items as a key, for example, when storing allowances based on account owner and spender. We could try to manually concatenate them before calling, but that can lead to overlap, and is a bit low-level for us. Also, by explicitly separating the keys, we can easily provide helpers to do range queries over a prefix, such as "show me all allowances for one owner" (first part of the composite key). Just like you'd expect from your favorite database.

Here how we use it with composite keys. Just define a tuple as a key and use that everywhere you used a byte slice above.

// Note the tuple for primary key. We support one slice, or a 2 or 3-tuple
// adding longer tuples is quite easy but unlikely to be needed.
const ALLOWANCE: Map<(&str, &str), u64> = Map::new("allow");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
let mut store = MockStorage::new();

// save and load on a composite key
let empty = ALLOWANCE.may_load(&store, ("owner", "spender"))?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);
ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner", "spender"), &777)?;
let loaded = ALLOWANCE.load(&store, ("owner", "spender"))?;
assert_eq!(777, loaded);

// doesn't appear under other key (even if a concat would be the same)
let different = ALLOWANCE.may_load(&store, ("owners", "pender")).unwrap();
assert_eq!(None, different);

// simple update
ALLOWANCE.update(&mut store, ("owner", "spender"), |v| {
Ok(v.unwrap_or_default() + 222)
})?;
let loaded = ALLOWANCE.load(&store, ("owner", "spender"))?;
assert_eq!(999, loaded);

Ok(())
}

Path

Under the scenes, we create a Path from the Map when accessing a key. PEOPLE.load(&store, b"jack") == PEOPLE.key(b"jack").load(). Map.key() returns a Path, which has the same interface as Item, reusing the calculated path to this key.

For simple keys, this is just a bit less typing and a bit less gas if you use the same key for many calls. However, for composite keys, like (b"owner", b"spender") it is much less typing. And highly recommended anywhere you will use a composite key even twice:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
pub name: String,
pub age: i32,
}

const PEOPLE: Map<&str, Data> = Map::new("people");
const ALLOWANCE: Map<(&str, &str), u64> = Map::new("allow");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
let mut store = MockStorage::new();
let data = Data {
name: "John".to_string(),
age: 32,
};

// create a Path one time to use below
let john = PEOPLE.key("john");

// Use this just like an Item above
let empty = john.may_load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);
john.save(&mut store, &data)?;
let loaded = john.load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(data, loaded);
john.remove(&mut store);
let empty = john.may_load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(None, empty);

// Same for composite keys, just use both parts in key().
// Notice how much less verbose than the above example.
let allow = ALLOWANCE.key(("owner", "spender"));
allow.save(&mut store, &1234)?;
let loaded = allow.load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(1234, loaded);
allow.update(&mut store, |x| Ok(x.unwrap_or_default() * 2))?;
let loaded = allow.load(&store)?;
assert_eq!(2468, loaded);

Ok(())
}

Prefix

In addition to getting one particular item out of a map, we can iterate over the map (or a subset of the map). This let us answer questions like "show me all tokens", and we provide some nice Bounds helpers to easily allow pagination or custom ranges.

The general format is to get a Prefix by calling map.prefix(k), where k is exactly one less item than the normal key (If map.key() took (&[u8], &[u8]), then map.prefix() takes &[u8]. If map.key() took &[u8], map.prefix() takes ()). Once we have a prefix space, we can iterate over all items with range(store, min, max, order). It supports Order::Ascending or Order::Descending. min is the lower bound and max is the higher bound.

#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug)]
pub enum Bound {
Inclusive(Vec<u8>),
Exclusive(Vec<u8>),
None,
}

If the min and max bounds, it will return all items under this prefix. You can use .take(n) to limit the results to n items and start doing pagination. You can also set the min bound to eg. Bound::Exclusive(last_value) to start iterating over all items after the last value. Combined with take, we easily have pagination support. You can also use Bound::Inclusive(x) when you want to include any perfect matches. To better understand the API, please read the following example:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
pub name: String,
pub age: i32,
}

const PEOPLE: Map<&str, Data> = Map::new("people");
const ALLOWANCE: Map<(&str, &str), u64> = Map::new("allow");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
let mut store = MockStorage::new();

// save and load on two keys
let data = Data { name: "John".to_string(), age: 32 };
PEOPLE.save(&mut store, "john", &data)?;
let data2 = Data { name: "Jim".to_string(), age: 44 };
PEOPLE.save(&mut store, "jim", &data2)?;

// iterate over them all
let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = PEOPLE
.range(&store, Bound::None, Bound::None, Order::Ascending)
.collect();
assert_eq!(
all?,
vec![("jim".to_vec(), data2), ("john".to_vec(), data.clone())]
);

// or just show what is after jim
let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = PEOPLE
.range(
&store,
Bound::Exclusive("jim"),
Bound::None,
Order::Ascending,
)
.collect();
assert_eq!(all?, vec![("john".to_vec(), data)]);

// save and load on three keys, one under different owner
ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner", "spender"), &1000)?;
ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner", "spender2"), &3000)?;
ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner2", "spender"), &5000)?;

// get all under one key
let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = ALLOWANCE
.prefix("owner")
.range(&store, Bound::None, Bound::None, Order::Ascending)
.collect();
assert_eq!(
all?,
vec![("spender".to_vec(), 1000), ("spender2".to_vec(), 3000)]
);

// Or ranges between two items (even reverse)
let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = ALLOWANCE
.prefix("owner")
.range(
&store,
Bound::Exclusive("spender1"),
Bound::Inclusive("spender2"),
Order::Descending,
)
.collect();
assert_eq!(all?, vec![("spender2".to_vec(), 3000)]);

Ok(())
}

IndexedMap

Let's sue one example of IndexedMap definition and usage, originally taken from the cw721-base contract.

Definition

pub struct TokenIndexes<'a> {
pub owner: MultiIndex<'a, Addr, TokenInfo>,
}

impl<'a> IndexList<TokenInfo> for TokenIndexes<'a> {
fn get_indexes(&'_ self) -> Box<dyn Iterator<Item = &'_ dyn Index<TokenInfo>> + '_> {
let v: Vec<&dyn Index<TokenInfo>> = vec![&self.owner];
Box::new(v.into_iter())
}
}

pub fn tokens<'a>() -> IndexedMap<'a, &'a str, TokenInfo, TokenIndexes<'a>> {
let indexes = TokenIndexes {
owner: MultiIndex::new(
|d: &TokenInfo| d.owner.clone(),
"tokens",
"tokens__owner",
),
};
IndexedMap::new("tokens", indexes)
}

Let's discuss this piece by piece:

pub struct TokenIndexes<'a> {
pub owner: MultiIndex<'a, Addr, TokenInfo, String>,
}

These are the index definitions. Here there's only one index, called owner. There could be more, as public members of the TokenIndexes struct.

We see that the owner index is a MultiIndex. A multi-index can have repeated values as keys. The primary key is used internally as the last element of the multi-index key, to disambiguate repeated index values. Like the name implies, this is an index over tokens, by owner. Given that an owner can have multiple tokens, we need a MultiIndex to be able to list / iterate over all the tokens a given owner has.

The TokenInfo data will originally be stored by token_id (which is a string value). You can see this in the token creation code:

    tokens().update(deps.storage, &msg.token_id, |old| match old {
Some(_) => Err(ContractError::Claimed {}),
None => Ok(token),
})?;

(Incidentally, this is using update instead of save, to avoid overwriting an already existing token).

Given that token_id is a string value, we specify String as the last argument of the MultiIndex definition. That way, the deserialization of the primary key will be done to the right type (an owned string).

Then, this TokenInfo data will be indexed by token owner (which is an Addr). So that we can list all the tokens an owner has. That's why the owner index key is Addr.

Other important thing here is that the key (and its components, in the case of a composite key) must implement the PrimaryKey trait. You can see that Addr do implement PrimaryKey:

impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for Addr {
type Prefix = ();
type SubPrefix = ();
type Suffix = Self;
type SuperSuffix = Self;

fn key(&self) -> Vec<Key> {
// this is simple, we don't add more prefixes
vec![Key::Ref(self.as_bytes())]
}
}

We can now see how it all works, taking a look at the remaining code:

impl<'a> IndexList<TokenInfo> for TokenIndexes<'a> {
fn get_indexes(&'_ self) -> Box<dyn Iterator<Item = &'_ dyn Index<TokenInfo>> + '_> {
let v: Vec<&dyn Index<TokenInfo>> = vec![&self.owner];
Box::new(v.into_iter())
}
}

This implements the IndexList trait for TokenIndexes. Note: this code is more or less boiler-plate, and needed for the internals. Do not try to customize this; just return a list of all indexes. Implementing this trait serves two purposes (which are really one and the same): it allows the indexes to be queried through get_indexes, and, it allows TokenIndexes to be treated as an IndexList. So that it can be passed as a parameter during IndexedMap construction, below:

pub fn tokens<'a>() -> IndexedMap<'a, &'a str, TokenInfo, TokenIndexes<'a>> {
let indexes = TokenIndexes {
owner: MultiIndex::new(
|d: &TokenInfo| d.owner.clone(),
"tokens",
"tokens__owner",
),
};
IndexedMap::new("tokens", indexes)
}

Here tokens() is just a helper function, that simplifies the IndexedMap construction for us. First the index (es) is (are) created, and then, the IndexedMap is created and returned.

During index creation, we must supply an index function per index

        owner: MultiIndex::new(|d: &TokenInfo| d.owner.clone(),

, which is the one that will take the value of the original map, and create the index key from it. Of course, this requires that the elements required for the index key are present in the value. Besides the index function, we must also supply the namespace of the pk, and the one for the new index.


After that, we just create and return the IndexedMap:

    IndexedMap::new("tokens", indexes)

Here of course, the namespace of the pk must match the one used during index(es) creation. And, we pass our TokenIndexes (as an IndexList-type parameter) as second argument. Connecting in this way the underlying Map for the pk, with the defined indexes.

So, IndexedMap (and the other Indexed* types) is just a wrapper / extension around Map, that provides a number of index functions and namespaces to create indexes over the original Map data. It also implements calling these index functions during value storage / update / removal, so that you can forget about it, and just use the indexed data.

Usage

An example of use, where owner is a String value passed as a parameter, and start_after and limit optionally define the pagination range:

Notice this uses prefix(), explained above in the Map section.

    let limit = limit.unwrap_or(DEFAULT_LIMIT).min(MAX_LIMIT) as usize;
let start = start_after.map(Bound::exclusive);
let owner_addr = deps.api.addr_validate(&owner)?;

let res: Result<Vec<_>, _> = tokens()
.idx
.owner
.prefix(owner_addr)
.range(deps.storage, start, None, Order::Ascending)
.take(limit)
.collect();
let tokens = res?;

Now tokens contains (token_id, TokenInfo) pairs for the given owner. The pk values are Vec<u8> in the case of prefix + range, but will be deserialized to the proper type using prefix_de + range_de; provided that the (optional) pk deserialization type (String, in this case) is specified in the MultiIndex definition (see #Index keys deserialization, below).

Another example that is similar, but returning only the token_ids, using the keys() method:

    let pks: Vec<_> = tokens()
.idx
.owner
.prefix(owner_addr)
.keys(
deps.storage,
start,
None,
Order::Ascending,
)
.take(limit)
.collect();

Now pks contains token_id values (as raw Vec<u8>s) for the given owner. Again, by using prefix_de + range_de, a deserialized key can be obtained instead, as detailed in the next section.

Index keys deserialization

For UniqueIndex and MultiIndex, the primary key (PK) type needs to be specified, in order to deserialize the primary key to it. This generic type comes with a default of (), which means that no deserialization / data will be provided for the primary key. This is for backwards compatibility with the current UniqueIndex / MultiIndex impls. It can also come in handy in cases you don't need the primary key, and are interested only in the deserialized values.